Photography For Beginners
Today we will talk about photography for beginners. We will talk about the basic rules that make you put your feet at the beginning of the road, and it will be a breakthrough for you so that you develop yourself in the different axes of photography and begin to specialize in the axis that you like to work in.
We will talk more about how to tighten the photographic process and how to control the photographic process. There is an important question that we must answer, which is whether photography is a science or an art.
Many people see photography as a talent, And many people who have talent start looking for scientific and correct foundations and rules.
Through it, they builds and sets out for a way of creativity in photography, so I would like to say that photography is not only a talent, nor a set of rules that we study, but combines talent and science in itself.
Because the photographic image, in the end, is what the photographer feels and reflects his aesthetic and artistic vision and his vision of things through the image, therefore photography is both a science and an art.
This leads us to talk more about the scientific aspect of photography, from the laws and principles that govern the photographic process.
- Composition In Photography
- Lighting in photography
- Rule of Thirds in Photography
- Golden Ratio Photography
- Golden Section Rectangle
- Golden Triangle Spiral
- Lines in Photography
- Photo Depth
- Spaces in Photography
- Virtual Cutting
- Color Harmony in Photography
- Background in Photography
- Rule Of Odds
- Figure To Ground Composition in Photography
- Texture Photography
- Symmetry Photography
- Perspective Photography
- Balance Photography
- Simplicity Photography
- What is the lens aperture?
- What is the shutter speed?
- Depth Of Field
- Camera Settings
Composition In Photography
Simply, composition means arranging the elements of a scene before shooting.
These elements include line, shape, space, and color consistency.
There is no constant for composition because it is related to personal taste.
The structural specifications of the image lie in its aesthetic aspect.
Lighting in photography
One of the most important components of the composition is light.
Light is an essential element. Neither the camera nor the digital processing, despite their importance, but light is the basis. Without it, no image will be formed.
The term “photography” means writing or drawing using light, and since light is the main element in photography, it cannot be excluded from the composition.
Light is an integral part of the composition, and one example of photography based on the principle of composition is light silhouettes and rainbows.
Rule of Thirds in Photography
One of the important rules of composition is the rule of thirds, and this rule is based on dividing the scene to come out comfortably for the viewer in the scene section.
By making imaginary lines, two horizontal lines, and two vertical lines, you divide the scene into 9 parts, and they are intersected at four points.
So you have four points. These points are called focus points or strength points in the image.
The advantage is that they place the element you want to photograph in one of those points.
I mean, if a person is focused on a specific thing, he must be in one-third of the image and two-thirds in the direction of eye movement.
You have to take into account the scene and the direction of movement and put the most important element of the image in the focus points that exist through the intersection of
the imaginary lines that we made.
Golden Ratio Photography
Dividing the image in the golden ratio rule differs from the rule of thirds in dividing the image into sections of approximately 1:1.62 instead of the blocks being equal in distance, and the golden ratio lines are concentrated in the center of the frame with approximately ⅜ from the top and 2/8 in the middle part, and ⅜ at the bottom.
Golden Section Rectangle
The golden section rectangle is based on a very complex mathematical formula in which the frame is divided into a series of rectangles, and this is known as the phi network.
And spaces can be used to draw a vortex called Fibonacci photography, and these spaces help to place the elements in the proper place of the event, and the vortex gives an idea of how the scene flows and is similar to invisible leading lines.
Golden Triangle Spiral
You can use this rule if the image contains diagonals.
To achieve this, the image is divided diagonally from the corner to the opposite corner, and then a line is drawn from one of the corners until it coincides with the first line at an angle of 90 degrees.
The image is placed within the resulting triangles, meaning that the image frame is divided by a diagonal line from corner to corner, and this divides the frame into a series of triangles, a method that helps to add dynamic tension to the resulting images.
Lines in Photography
There are two types of line composition : real and delusional.
Real lines, such as telephone pole lines and building edge lines, can be seen.
Delusional lines are caused by non-physical factors such as gestures, gesticulations, or looking in the direction of something.
Both types can be used to attract attention to different parts of the image.
In pictures with a strong impact, we find that the lines draw attention to the main scene in the composition, and the direction of the lines can be used to strengthen the general atmosphere of the picture.
Long lines, such as towers and tall trees, emphasize the feeling of grandeur in the composition, while the horizontal lines suggest peace, tranquility, and balance, while the diagonal lines may increase vitality or tension, while the sides of the triangle emphasize movement or stability.
You can use the road as a guideline to follow the eye and reach the subject of the image.
You can also use the diagonal rays of sunlight as lines to give dynamics to the image.
Use repeating lines to draw the viewer’s attention to the center of interest of the image.
Depth is closely related to the background, and depth can appear in the image by adding something to the foreground of the image, which means attracting the gaze through the image through the road.
Spaces in Photography
Space element, which is an area in the picture surrounding the scenery that can be used to draw attention to the main scene in the picture and isolate it from the details, but if the size of the void increases, it may be a reason to reduce the suspense in the picture, and as a general rule, the void should not cover more than a third of the surface of the picture.
As for the visual cutting rule, the images must be visually cut before taking them by looking at the corners of the viewfinder and identifying the elements that should not be in the image, and then they must be removed or cut. This can be achieved by getting closer to the subject with more than one angle experiment.
Color Harmony in Photography
This rule or this element adds depth to the composition, and without it, the image appears flat and stereoscopic. In black and white photography, the colors of the scenes turn into a consistent series of degrees of gray, and this consistency is what helps in building the general shape of the image. If the light colors were dominant, the image would appear fun and cheerful. As for the picture that contains dark colors, it may give a feeling of sadness or mystery.
Background in Photography
The background of the image contributes to its formation in one way or another. If it is important, it must be highlighted; if it is not, then a large aperture is used to distort it and make it blurry, focusing on the important points in the image, and the photographer must determine whether the background adds to the image or not.
Rule Of Odds
The rule of odd numbers simply means that the eye tends to focus on pictures that contain an odd number of elements instead of even numbers. For example, a picture of three birds on a fence is more attractive than a picture after the third bird flies away, and the reason for this is that the eye wanders naturally towards the center of the group. If there is a space, the eye will not find what to focus on, and as a photographer, you must know that the viewer should focus on a subject.
Figure To Ground Composition in Photography
In the sense that the figure is the main form in the composition of the majority of the pictures, giving the viewer the ability to instantly recognize the scenery in the picture. The figure also adds a kind of suspense to the composition. The figure of the scenes, such as rocks or snails, is attractive in itself, and the combination of different figures gives diversification.
The texture is another way to create dimension in an image by zooming in and zooming in on a specific surface and making the image more attractive.
Symmetry, in which the images are composed of similar parts, the right corner and the left are the same, is found in many elements of nature, such as mountain chains.
The front angle is not always the best angle for shooting, as evidenced by the fact that some of the most exciting photos are taken from an unfamiliar location, for example, a shooting angle from below, and the different angles of photography add suspense and excitement to the subject of the photo.
To achieve the right balance in the pictures, you must think about the subject and capture it from a certain angle or at a specific time of the day, which focuses attention on the subject of the picture.
It appears so clearly during the use of the rule of thirds or the golden ratio. In some cases, the image needs to be balanced.
An image with a large subject in the foreground in one area may make an image look slanted or too heavy on one side. Some balance can be achieved by including a less important and less visible element in the background.
The most important element is simplicity in composition, so it is necessary to search for the simplest ways to highlight the center of attention in the images.
One of the most important of these methods is to choose easy backgrounds that do not distract attention from the subject and, as a general rule, represent simple images to be more attractive than complex images.
It requires removing all distractions from the image to apply it.
To apply it, one must ask whether this element is added to the composition of the image. If it is not added, it must be disposed of by resetting so that the element is not in the frame.
Or enlarge the image using a larger aperture for a shallow depth of field or simply crop the image later in post-processing.
What is the lens aperture?
The lens aperture is a set of metal pieces that can be moved in and out so that there is a circular lens behind the lens that works by the iris eye system. Its main function is to let the light in.
I think most of us made this small movement. If you’ve been in a very dark room for a while, you’ll notice your eyes widening, trying to feel the light where you can determine the landmarks and locations of things, as opposed to when you’re outside this room in the sunshine, where you’ll notice your eyes closing hard, trying to reduce the light that enters your eyes by this amount.
So, lens aperture is the same idea, and that’s why I say that it works with the same idea as the iris of the eye.
How to control the lens aperture ?
Most of the time you see symbole Like that f/1.2.
What does this symbol mean?
The ‘F’ is an abbreviation of focal stops
For the number it indicate how narrow or wide you want the aperture, the rule says that the smaller the number, the greater the aperture of the lens
f/1.2 f/2.0 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/16 and so on
The narrower the lens aperture, the less light that enters it, and vice versa.
What is the shutter speed?
In short, the shutter speed is the time that light is allowed to enter the sensor, and this process is controlled by the shutter between the lens and the sensor.
The shutter speed is indicated in the camera by the letter s and, in some cameras, denoted as TV. TV denotes the time value.
we were able to control the amount of light, and we said that the aperture of the lens controls the amount of light, but is this enough? No, of course, it must remain in balance between the amount of light that passes through and the time of its stay, and this makes us ask an important question: what is the method that make you control the time duration?
It is the shutter speed. If you left it for a long time, you could be exposed to overexposure.
And if you reduce the time too much, it will be an Under Explorer.
To control shutter speed, There is a relationship between the amount of light and the shutter speed. The lower the speed, the greater the amount of light that enters the sensor.
There is also a relationship between shutter speed and movement; the faster the shutter speed, the more the moving subject appears as if it is not moving quickly during exposure, and The slower the shutter speed, the more details that enter the sensor.
If you want to use shutter speed and aperture together, the rule is:
If the shutter is fast, it allows the light to pass through in a short period with a large aperture (light is bright).
If the shutter is slow, it allows the light to pass through for a long period ( with a smaller aperture, the light is dim).
It is the amount of light that the sensor needs inside the camera to be affected enough, and this amount of light depends on the time duration that the light falls on the sensor (shutter speed) and the size of the aperture (shutter control).
Correct exposure = amount of light * length of time
Depth Of Field
It is a term given to the size of the area that is within the clear range (focus) of the image, and the more the area extended in front of the photographer is clear, the more we have a large depth of field, and if the subject is clear and everything behind it is not clear, this means that we have a shallow depth of field.
In the lower part of this image is a large depth of field, all the details in the scene are visible about the upper part of the image, the depth of field is narrow, not focused except on a narrow space.
In this picture, it appears that the small aperture requires a higher depth of field and less light, but if the aperture is large, the depth of field is less more light.
What is the relationship between aperture and depth of field?
The larger the aperture, the narrower the depth of field, and vice versa, the smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field
Simply I can define the depth of field as the distance between the nearest point and the farthest point in the subject.
It has different dimensions that can be obtained sharp and clear in the image and has a fixed gradation that does not move on the lens tube opposite the aperture and the opposite of the shutter speed.
You will find an indicator that will go to the right or left depending on the lighting conditions you are in.
If the indicator goes to the + (positive sign), then it indicates that the image will remain over-exposed, but if it goes to the – (negative sign) , then it indicates that the picture will remain under-exposed.
You should control the ISO, shutter, and aperture so that the cursor remains at 0, so the image will appear right.
We can summarize in the following
If you bought a camera and started taking pictures on manual mode, and you noticed that the image was constantly lit up, it would be over-exposed.
The picture is not right because you are not able to control three main things that enter the lighting into the sensor
they are in order ISO – shutter speed – apreture
And we will talk about it briefly so that you know how to enter good lighting for the sensor? what effect does it have on the image?
ISO in Photography
It means the sensitivity of the sensor to the light that enters the camera. You can reduce or increase the sensor’s light sensitivity through the ISO numbers.
For example, if the ISO is 100, it has almost the lowest ISO degree of most cameras.
You are telling the sensor to receive low light ,but if you increase the ISO or the number to 800, you are telling the sensor to receive more light.
So how does this affect the photo?
As the ISO increases, the photo noise increases, and if you don’t know what the noise is, It’s a very tiny white dot in the pictures, and it appears very clear in the dark parts of your pictures. Because of that, we don’t recommend increasing the ISO at first.
ISO performance differs from camera to another, meaning you need to reduce the ISO in entry level cameras to get high quality images, but with the expensive ones, full frame cameras the ISO can reach high levels without making a clear noise in the image.
The second thing we will talk about is the shutter speed
It is the gate that is in front of the sensor, as soon as you press the shooting button, this gate opens and closes by entering the light of the sensor, after that it closes again. The speed of opening and closing the gate is the space through which you can enter the light into the sensor. For example, if you need to enter a high light of the sensor, you open this The gate is for a long time, and if you have enough lighting, you do not need high lighting, so let the shutter open and close quickly
The shutter is measured here in numbers, or a more correct sense, in seconds. I mean, I need the shutter to open to you, one for a fraction of a second, and this part, for example, 1/30 1/60 1/100 1/200 1/2000 1/4000
And it can reach 1/8000, and the sharer affects the image in two ways:
Freezing and motion, I mean, if I want to make freezing for something moving in the picture, I will make the number of the shutter high, like 1/2000. But if I want to make the picture in its motion, I will make the shutter speed a little, like 1/30.
And the third thing we’ll talk about is the aperture
Its task is to also enter the light into the sensor
The aperture of the lens can enter more light into the sensor, such as, for example, a light F1.2 f1.4 f2.8. I mean, the lower the number, the larger the lens aperture, the more light entered the sensor.
But if we start to close the aperture of the lens to f4 or more, the light inside the sensor will remain a few and the aperture of the lens here affects the image in an important need and it is isolation.
The topic of isolation will explain to you with a simple example. If, for example, you picture a person in a garden and there are many people there, and your lens is f1.8. After you visualize the picture, you will find that this person is in focus and very sharp, but all around him are blurry
This is what happens if you have a wide aperture, but if you start closing the f.4 lens aperture, for example, you will find that the people behind this person start to appear every time you close the aperture of the lens, all their details appear more and this is the depth of field.
The three things that I talked about to control them and produce a beautiful image without experimenting once or twice and three times.
You can control them through something called the light meter and we have talked about it.
What is the element that I am supposed to control then control the rest of the elements?
The answer is up to you, What do you need in the picture?
I mean, if you are shooting a person and need that the person be completely isolated from the background, my priority is the aperture, meaning that I start adjusting the aperture, after that, I adjust the ISO, and after that the shutter speed, But if my priority is to do freezing for someone who is running, then I must set the first shutter speed and make it high and adjust the rest of the other elements, and the topic needs a lot of practice to be able to control the three elements very quickly because the image and the moment will not wait for you.